This memorandum is divided into three parts. The first part is the development of the main WTO treaties, namely the 1994 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Agriculture Agreement (AoA). We discuss how the ambiguity of the terms in these provisions poses a challenge to effective export control disciplines. Second, we are analysing proposals by several WTO members to clarify ambiguities or fill the void in existing discipline. Third, we discuss regional trade agreements, including TTIP, CETA and TTP, as well as other smaller WTO agreements. The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) agreement is being negotiated between the United States and the European Union. Negotiations on TTIP began in July 2013 and are currently taking place behind closed doors. With regard to food security, the European Union`s proposal for a TTIP legislation on agriculture , published on 21 March 2016  2. In all cases where contracting PARTIES are invited to examine or address issues related to foreign exchange reserves, balances of payments or exchange agreements, they consult fully with the International Monetary Fund. During these consultations, contractING PARTIES accept all statistical findings and other data presented by the Fund with respect to currencies, foreign exchange reserves and balances of payments and accept the Fund`s determination of the compliance of a party`s trade activities with the articles of the International Monetary Fund agreement. , or under a special exchange agreement between that party and contractING PARTIES. CONTRACTING PARTIES, when deciding on their final decision when the criteria set out in Article XII, paragraph 2, point a), or Article XVIII, paragraph 9, apply, accept the Fund`s determination of what constitutes a significant decrease in the foreign exchange reserve assets of the contracting parties, a very low level of its foreign exchange reserve assets or a reasonable increase in its reserve assets. , and with respect to the financial aspects of other inconsistencies in such cases.
1. Goods (including baggage) as well as ships and other means of transport are considered to pass through the territory of a contractor when the passage through that area, with or without transshipment, storage, destruction or modification of the means of transport, is only part of a complete journey beginning and ending beyond the border of the contracting company. , in the territory in which traffic passes. Traffic of this type is designated in this article traffic during the passage. (2) The WTO provides the status of negotiations among its members on multilateral trade relations in the cases under this agreement. The WTO can also provide a forum for further negotiations among its members on their multilateral trade relations and a framework for the implementation of the outcome of these negotiations, as decided by the Ministerial Conference. 1. The WTO provides a common institutional framework for the implementation of trade relations between its members in areas under the agreements and legal instruments attached to them.