In the economy, a protocol is generally a legally non-binding agreement between two or more parties that defines the terms and modalities of mutual understanding or agreement and notes the requirements and responsibilities of each party – without concluding a formal and legally enforceable contract (although a MoU is often a first step towards the development of a formal contract).   A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU or MoU) is an agreement between two or more parties, which is described in a formal document. It is not legally binding, but it indicates that the parties are ready to move forward with a treaty. Even if the amount is small, it is important to have a treaty rather than a memorandum of understanding or no document at all. It is reasonable to assume that more professional partnerships, collaborations and other organizational and individual relationships are ruined by money issues than by the next ten cases. The reason is often that the parties have different interpretations of what is expected, or that one party simply ignores the agreement between the two, that the other thought has been set in stone. This may be as minor a problem as changing a budget item (for which you may already have a procedure in the contract – see above) or changing all the content of the activity that is covered by the treaty. In general, such changes should require the agreement of both parties and some negotiations are likely to take place. In international relations, moUs fall into the broad category of treaties and should be included in the United Nations Treaty Book.  In practice and despite the insistence of the United Nations Ministry of Rights to submit registration to avoid “secret diplomacy”, MoUs are sometimes treated confidentially.
Legally, the title of the agreement does not necessarily mean that the document is binding or non-binding under international law. In order to determine whether a given project should be a legally binding document (i.e. a treaty), it is necessary to examine the intention of the parties as well as the position of the signatories (for example. B Minister of Foreign Affairs versus Environment Minister). An in-depth analysis of the text will also clarify the exact nature of the document. The International Court of Justice has an overview of the determination of the legal status of a document in the pioneering case of Qatar/. Bahrain, 1 July 1994.  In the United Kingdom, the term MoU is frequently used to enter into an agreement between parties to The Crown. This term is often used in the context of decentralization, for example. B in the 1999 concorda between the Central Ministry of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Scottish Environment Directorate.